Thrombosis

Thrombosis – this is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel. In the absence of adequate treatment, thrombosis can lead to serious complications and even death..

How is a blood clot formed?

Thrombosis – it is a natural defense mechanism that starts working when tissue is damaged in order to prevent blood loss and wound infection.

A blood clot is formed as a result of the interaction of coagulation factors (protein molecules that are normally found in the blood) and platelets (blood cells).

The blood coagulation system is normally balanced by the anticoagulant system, which maintains the blood liquid state.

Some people have congenital disorders in the coagulation system (thrombophilia).

Types of blood clots

Blood clots can be divided into venous (formed in the veins) and arterial (formed in the arteries)

Arterial blood clots can cause ischemia of the heart, heart attack, stroke..

Venous blood clots cause diseases such as deep vein thrombosis and thromboembolism..


What is deep vein thrombosis? (ТГВ)?

This is the formation of a blood clot in the deep veins (usually the lower limbs or pelvis).  The following symptoms may occur:

  • limb edema
  • feeling of tension or pain in the limb
  • limb redness
  • swelling of varicose veins

Deep vein thrombosis can be complicated by increased venous pressure, ulceration, and decreased mobility. In addition, DVT can cause a life-threatening condition such as pulmonary embolism.


What is pulmonary embolism??

If deep vein thrombosis is not treated, then pulmonary embolism (PE) will develop in 10–20% of cases.. This complication occurs if a blood clot breaks into small fragments that are brought into the pulmonary artery with blood flow. As a result, blood flow to the lungs is restricted and pulmonary and heart failure, and even death, can develop..


Do you belong to a risk group??

Today there are many risk factors for thrombosis. The most important of these are the following.:

  • surgery
  • trauma (fracture)
  • bed rest 
  • oncological diseases
  • age over 40
  • severe varicose veins
  • pregnancy
  • contraceptive use
  • thrombophilia (blood pathology leading to thrombosis)
  • some concomitant diseases (chronic heart and respiratory failure, infection, diseases of the joints)
  • fat
  • smoking

If you have a combination of 2 or more factors, you may be prescribed prevention of deep vein thrombosis.


Diagnosis of thrombosis and thromboembolism

If your doctor suspects that you have developed thrombosis, you may be prescribed the following tests to establish a diagnosis.:

  • Venography
  • Doppler Ultrasonography
  • Duplex scanning
  • Determination of D-dimer in the blood

If a pulmonary artery thromboembolism is suspected, the following studies can be performed.:

  • Ventilation perfusion lung scan
  • Lung angiography
  • Spiral computed tomography

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